خمس طرق للحصول على المساعدة فى سطر الأوامر

الواجهة الرسومية فى لينوكس قوية كفاية الأن لعمل كل ما تريده وبسهولة بالغة. لكن يظل سطر الأوامر هو فاكهة لينوكس ومتعة مستخدميه الدائمة والسهلة والأمنة أيضاً إلى أقصى حد. لذا اريد ان اوضح فى هذه التدوينة خمس طرق لتعلم نفسك سطر الأوامر…

apropos

هل تذكر جزء من الأمر؟ وليس بالكامل؟

هذا إحدى الحلول وهو إستخدام أمر apropos حيث سيأتيك بكل الاوامر التى تحتوى على هذه الحروف (سواء فى الأمر أو تعريفه) مع تعريف لكل أمر

مثال لو إستخدمناها مع أمر كـ sudo:

$ apropos sudo
gksu (1)             - GTK+ frontend for su and sudo
gksudo (1)           - GTK+ frontend for su and sudo
gnome-sudoku (6)     - puzzle game for the popular Japanese sudoku logic puzzle
sudo (8)             - execute a command as another user
sudo_root (8)        - How to run administrative commands
sudoedit (8)         - execute a command as another user
sudoers (5)          - list of which users may execute what
visudo (8)           - edit the sudoers file

الجدير بالذكر أنك لو ضغط Tab أثناء كتابتك الأمر سيقوم الترمينال بإكمال الأمر بشكل تلقائى

man

اشهر وافضل طريقة للحصول على المساعدة السريعة والشبة كاملة (الكمال لله وحده عز وجل) عن طريق الوصول لصفحة الـ man للأمر مثال:

man ls

ماذا لو ل اكن اعلم الامر بالضبط هل سيفيدنى man؟

بالتأكيد يمكنك إستخدام man -k REGEX or UNIXCOMMAND

مثال:

man -k compression
bzip2               (rpm) - A file compression utility.
gzip                (rpm) - The GNU data compression program.
zip                 (rpm) - A file compression and packaging utility compatible with PKZIP.
zlib                 (3)  - compression/decompression library
zlib                (rpm) - The zlib compression and decompression library.

للحصول على المذيد من المساعدة عن أمر man فقط أكتب أمر man man😉

whatis

يمكنك من خلاله الحصول على تعريف للأمر فى سطر واحد يمكن إستخدامه للتعرف على وظيفة أمر تعرفته على الأنترنت مثلا فى أقل وقت مثال:

$ whatis cron
cron (8)             - daemon to execute scheduled commands (Vixie Cron)

-h

إفتح صفحة المساعدة للأمر عن طريق -h مثال:

$ netstat -h

Info

لو لم تحصل على المساعدة التى تنتظرها من man يمكنك إستخدام صفحة info لذلك مثال:

info sed
ropos ls
SSL (3ssl)           – OpenSSL SSL/TLS library
aconnect (1)         – ALSA sequencer connection manager
add-shell (8)        – add shells to the list of valid login shells
alsactl (1)          – advanced controls for ALSA soundcard driver
alsamixer (1)        – soundcard mixer for ALSA soundcard driver, with ncurse…
amidi (1)            – read from and write to ALSA RawMIDI ports
amixer (1)           – command-line mixer for ALSA soundcard driver
aplay (1)            – command-line sound recorder and player for ALSA soundc…
arecord (1)          – command-line sound recorder and player for ALSA soundc…
aseqdump (1)         – show the events received at an ALSA sequencer port
aseqnet (1)          – ALSA sequencer connectors over network
blockdev (8)         – call block device ioctls from the command line
BN_lshift (3ssl)     – bit operations on BIGNUMs
BN_lshift1 (3ssl)    – bit operations on BIGNUMs
c++filt (1)          – Demangle C++ and Java symbols.
charmap (5)          – character symbols to define character encodings
compress-dummy (1)   – manual page for compress-dummy – sharutils 4.6.3
credentials (7)      – process identifiers
deb-symbols (5)      – Debian’s extended shared library information file
default.pa (5)       – PulseAudio Sound Server Startup Script
delscreen (3ncurses) – curses screen initialization and manipulation routines
dircolors (1)        – color setup for ls
dlltool (1)          – Create files needed to build and use DLLs.
dpkg-gensymbols (1)  – generate symbols files (shared library dependency info…
esdcompat (1)        – PulseAudio ESD wrapper script
evince-thumbnailer (1) – create png thumbnails from PostScript and PDF documents
evolution (1)        – groupware suite for GNOME containing e-mail, calendar,…
false (1)            – do nothing, unsuccessfully
foomatic-kitload (8) – installs a data kit into the foomatic database.
fslsfonts (1)        – list fonts served by X font server
glcells (6)          – growing cells graphics hack
Glib::devel (3pm)    – Binding developer’s overview of Glib’s internals
Glib::Utils (3pm)    – Miscellaneous utility functions
glschool (6)         – a 3D schooling simulation
glslideshow (6)      – slideshow of images using smooth zooming and fades
gnome-open (1)       – Open files and URLs using the GNOME file handlers
gnome-screensaver-command (1) – controls GNOME screensaver
graphviz (7)         – rich set of graph drawing tools
hp-levels (1)        – Supply Levels Utility
initramfs-tools (8)  – an introduction to writing scripts for mkinitramfs
intro (2)            – Introduction to system calls
ip (8)               – show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and…
iwpriv (8)           – configure optionals (private) parameters of a wireless…
laptop-mode.conf (8) – Configuration file for laptop-mode-tools.
ldapadd (1)          – LDAP modify entry and LDAP add entry tools
ldapmodify (1)       – LDAP modify entry and LDAP add entry tools
List::MoreUtils (3pm) – Provide the stuff missing in List::Util
lm-profiler.conf (8) – Configuration file for lm-profiler, a profiler for lap…
lm-syslog-setup (8)  – configure laptop mode tools to switch syslog.conf base…
logrotate (8)        – rotates, compresses, and mails system logs
ls (1)               – list directory contents
lsattr (1)           – list file attributes on a Linux second extended file s…
lsb_release (1)      – print distribution-specific information
lscpu (1)            – CPU architecture information helper
lsdev (8)            – display information about installed hardware
lshal (1)            – list HAL devices
lshw (1)             – list hardware
lsmod (8)            – program to show the status of modules in the Linux Kernel
lsof (8)             – list open files
lspci (8)            – list all PCI devices
lspcmcia (8)         – display extended PCMCIA debugging information
lspgpot (1)          – extracts the ownertrust values from PGP keyrings and l…
lss16toppm (1)       – Convert an LSS-16 image to PPM
lsusb (1)            – list USB devices
lsusb (8)            – list USB devices
luit (1)             – Locale and ISO 2022 support for Unicode terminals
LWP::Protocol (3pm)  – Base class for LWP protocols
mail-files (1)       – GNU sharutils
mailshar (1)         – GNU sharutils
mailsnarf (8)        – sniff mail messages in Berkeley mbox format
man (1)              – an interface to the on-line reference manuals
mcomp (1)            – Compares two files using mtools
md5sum.textutils (1) – compute and check MD5 message digest
mpg123-alsa (1)      – play audio MPEG 1.0/2.0/2.5 stream (layers 1, 2 and 3)
mtools (1)           – utilities to access DOS disks in Unix.
mtools (5)           – mtools configuration files
mtools.conf (5)      – mtools configuration files
mtoolstest (1)       – tests and displays the configuration
mysqlshow (1)        – display database, table, and column information
mysqlslap (1)        – load emulation client
Net::DBus::Error (3pm) – Error details for remote method invocation
Net::DBus::Exporter (3pm) – Export object methods and signals to the bus
Net::DBus::Tutorial (3pm) – tutorials on the Perl DBus APIs
Net::DBus::Tutorial::ExportingObjects (3pm) – tutorials on providing a DBus s…
nm (1)               – list symbols from object files
nstat (8)            – network statistics tools.
ntfsls (8)           – list directory contents on an NTFS filesystem
ntfsprogs (8)        – tools for doing neat things with NTFS
pabrowse (1)         – List PulseAudio sound servers on the network
pacat (1)            – Play back or record raw audio streams on a PulseAudio …
pacmd (1)            – Reconfigure a PulseAudio sound server during runtime
pactl (1)            – Control a running PulseAudio sound server
padsp (1)            – PulseAudio OSS Wrapper
pam_exec (8)         – PAM module which calls an external command
pam_shells (8)       – PAM module to check for valid login shell
paplay (1)           – Play back audio files on a PulseAudio sound server
parec (1)            – Play back or record raw audio streams on a PulseAudio …
pasuspender (1)      – Temporarily suspend PulseAudio
pax11publish (1)     – PulseAudio X11 Credential Utility
pkaction (1)         – Get details about a registered action
ppmtolss16 (1)       – Convert a PPM to an LSS16 image
protocols (5)        – the protocols definition file
pulse-client.conf (5) – PulseAudio client configuration file
pulse-daemon.conf (5) – PulseAudio daemon configuration file
pulseaudio (1)       – The PulseAudio Sound System
remove-shell (8)     – remove shells from the list of valid login shells
remsync (1)          – GNU sharutils
resolve_stack_dump (1) – resolve numeric stack trace dump to symbols
rhythmbox-client (1) – controls a running instance of rhythmbox
RPC::PlServer (3pm)  – Perl extension for writing PlRPC servers
rtacct (8)           – network statistics tools.
s_client (1ssl)      – SSL/TLS client program
s_server (1ssl)      – SSL/TLS server program
s_time (1ssl)        – SSL/TLS performance timing program
sane-artec_eplus48u (5) – SANE backend for the scanner Artec E+ 48U and re-ba…
sane-coolscan (5)    – SANE backend for Nikon film-scanners
sane-coolscan2 (5)   – SANE backend for Nikon Coolscan film scanners
sane-coolscan3 (5)   – SANE backend for Nikon Coolscan film scanners
sess_id (1ssl)       – SSL/TLS session handling utility
shells (5)           – pathnames of valid login shells
signal (7)           – overview of signals
smbcacls (1)         – Set or get ACLs on an NT file or directory names
snmpcmd (1)          – options and behaviour common to most of the Net-SNMP c…
speaker-test (1)     – command-line speaker test tone generator for ALSA
ssl (3ssl)           – OpenSSL SSL/TLS library
SSL_accept (3ssl)    – wait for a TLS/SSL client to initiate a TLS/SSL handshake
SSL_COMP_add_compression_method (3ssl) – handle SSL/TLS integrated compressio…
SSL_connect (3ssl)   – initiate the TLS/SSL handshake with an TLS/SSL server
SSL_CTX_new (3ssl)   – create a new SSL_CTX object as framework for TLS/SSL e…
SSL_CTX_set_ssl_version (3ssl) – choose a new TLS/SSL method
SSL_do_handshake (3ssl) – perform a TLS/SSL handshake
SSL_get_error (3ssl) – obtain result code for TLS/SSL I/O operation
SSL_get_session (3ssl) – retrieve TLS/SSL session data
SSL_get_ssl_method (3ssl) – choose a new TLS/SSL method
SSL_read (3ssl)      – read bytes from a TLS/SSL connection.
SSL_set_session (3ssl) – set a TLS/SSL session to be used during TLS/SSL connect
SSL_set_ssl_method (3ssl) – choose a new TLS/SSL method
SSL_shutdown (3ssl)  – shut down a TLS/SSL connection
SSL_want (3ssl)      – obtain state information TLS/SSL I/O operation
SSL_want_nothing (3ssl) – obtain state information TLS/SSL I/O operation
SSL_want_read (3ssl) – obtain state information TLS/SSL I/O operation
SSL_want_write (3ssl) – obtain state information TLS/SSL I/O operation
SSL_want_x509_lookup (3ssl) – obtain state information TLS/SSL I/O operation
SSL_write (3ssl)     – write bytes to a TLS/SSL connection.
sslscan (1)          – Fast SSL scanner
strace (1)           – trace system calls and signals
strip (1)            – Discard symbols from object files.
system-tools-backends (1) – message dispatcher for system-tools-backends
tc-cbq-details (8)   – Class Based Queueing
tclsh (1)            – Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter
tclsh8.4 (1)         – Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter
textdomain (3)       – set domain for future gettext() calls
traceroute6.iputils (8) – traces path to a network host
traptoemail (1)      – snmptrapd handler script to convert snmp traps into em…
update-openoffice-dicts (8) – rebuild dictionary.lst for OpenOffice.org
update_panels (3curses) – panel stack extension for curses
urlsnarf (8)         – sniff HTTP requests in Common Log Format
variables (5)        – Format of specifying variable names to SNMP tools.
w3mman (1)           – an interface to the on-line reference manuals by w3m(1)
watch (1)            – execute a program periodically, showing output fullscreen
webspy (8)           – display sniffed URLs in Netscape in real-time
wireless (7)         – Wireless Tools and Wireless Extensions
xlsatoms (1)         – list interned atoms defined on server
xlsclients (1)       – list client applications running on a display
xlsfonts (1)         – server font list displayer for X
XML::XPath::Boolean (3pm) – Boolean true/false values
XML::XPath::PerlSAX (3pm) – A PerlSAX event generator for my wierd node struc…

هذا المقال مترجم جزئياً من THE GEEK STUFF

أرجو ان تستفيدوا من هذه التدوينة🙂

2 Responses to خمس طرق للحصول على المساعدة فى سطر الأوامر

  1. السلام عليكم
    أبارك عليك المعرف الجديدة وكذلك مدونتك اللطيفة

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